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Amino acids are the smallest building blocks of a protein. Proteins are "essential building blocks of life". But amino acids also fulfill independent functional tasks.

A distinction is made between essential and non-essential amino acids:

  • Essential amino acids: must be supplied through food - an undersupply cannot be compensated
  • Non-essential amino acids: can be formed in the organism by consuming essential amino acids


  • isoleucine (VK)
  • leucine (VK)
  • lysine
  • Methionine (SH)
  • Phenylalanine (AAS)
  • Threonine
  • Tryptophan (AAS)
  • Valine (VK)


  • arginine
  • Histidine (AAS)
  • cystine/cysteine ​​(SH)
  • Tyrosine


  • Alanine
  • aspartic acid/
  • Glutamine
  • asparagine
  • glutamic acid
  • Glutamine
  • Glycine (glycine)
  • serine
  • proline
  • Ornithine
  • taurine
  • Hydroxyproline
  • citrulline
  • 3-methylhistidine
  • L-Theanine
  • Glutamine
  • Glycine (glycine)
  • serine
  • proline
  • Ornithine
  • taurine
  • Hydroxyproline
  • citrulline
  • 3-methylhistidine
  • L-Theanine
  • and much more

Amino acids have three central tasks in our body:

  • Structural tasks (anabolic function), i.e. the construction of proteins ("proteinogenicity")
  • Energy production (catabolic function)
  • Providing Sulfur

Proteins can be classified into the following 7 main functional groups:

structural proteins

Skeleton of the organism

collagen, hair, nails,
matrix, elastin, keratin, myosin

Contractile proteins

Components of the muscles

myosin, actin


catalysis of many biochemical reactions,
antioxidant and anti-inflammatory function

amylase, lipase, pepsin, trypsin,
catalases, peroxidases, proteases

transport and
carrier proteins

Transportation of important molecules

hemoglobin, plasma albumins, Ca-binding
protein, metallothioneins

regulatory proteins

Control and coordination of chemical

Hormones (e.g. insulin, oxytocin, insulin, glucagon
corticotropin, vasopressin, angiotensin)

protective proteins

Storage of substances
for future needs

Blood coagulation (thrombin, fibrin, fibrinogen)
Immune system (immunoglobulins, interleukins)
Storage proteins (ferritin = iron storage)

control proteins

Regulation of various processes
in the organism

Correct reading of DNS

The intake of (digestible) proteins takes place through food. By means of eenzymatic hydrolysis, the amino acids are released from the natural food proteins, which represent a mixture of amino acids.

The released amino acids are then available for the anabolic (constructive, conversion in the organism into endogenous protein) and catabolic metabolism (energy, nitrogen).


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